It is hard to imagine how workforce planning within the transportation sector could be more challenging than it is at the current time. Faced with unprecedented growth, transport service providers and infrastructure owners are striving to scale up, while maintaining service and productivity levels. This is taking place within a highly regulated and unionised environment, subject to exacting public scrutiny. Evidence-based decision making is fundamental to success, especially as the implications of workforce planning decisions are so financially significant, and so critical to the reputation of the industry as a whole.